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Dr. Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin

Position Professor, Dean
Academic Qualification Ph.D (Wales), M.Sc. (UMIST), B.Sc (Leeds)
Professional Membership C.Eng. IMechE (UK) 
Area of Expertise Alternative Energy Studies, Renewable Energy Studies, Biomass Energy
Gasification, Biomass Power Plant,Internal Combustion Engine
  Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning
  Research Gate

Contact Info

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Tel. No. (Office) : 04 5996358
Tel. No. (Personal) : 01205069000
Room No. : 2.09

Course taught

EMH 211- Thermodynamics 
EME431- Refrigeration  and air conditioning
EME422– Energy conversion system
EME432- Internal combustion engine
EML211- Engineering Lab 1
EMD 442 Integrated design 
EMD 442- System design
EMD 332-Machine design


Journal papers:

1)    K.O Lim, ZAZ Alauddin, GA Quadir, MZ Abdullah ‘Energy Potential and Utilisation of Plantation Crops in Malaysia. Asean Journal on Science and Technology for Development December 2000 Vol 17 pp 1-16

2)    K.O. Lim, Z.A Zainal, GA Quadir and MZ Abdullah. Plant Base Energy Potential and Biomass Utilisation in Malaysia, International Energy Journal. December 2000 Vol 1, No. 2

3)    Z. A Zainal, CH Lean , KNS Seetharamu, A Rifau Prediction of Performance of a Downdraft Gasifier Using The Equilibrium Modelling for Different Biomass Material, Energy Conversion And Management, Volume 42, Issue 12, August 2001 Pages 1499-1515

4)    K N Seetharamu, R Paragasam, Ghulam A. Quadir, Z A Zainal, ‘Finite Element Modelling of Solidification Phenomena’, Sadhana , Vol 26, Parts 1&2, February-April 2001, pp103-120

5)    Z.A Zainal and A Rifau, Experimental Investigation of a Downdraft Biomass Gasifier, Biomass & Bioenergy, Volume 23, Issue4, October 2002, Pages 283-289

7)    Z. Hussain, Z. Zainal, Z, Abdullah, “Briquetting Of Palm Fibre And Shell From The Processing Of Palm Nuts To Palm Oil’, Biomass and Bioenergy, 2002, Volume 22 Page 505-509

8)    Z. Hussain, Z. Zainal, Z, Abdullah, Analysis of Biomass-Residue-Based Cogeneration System in Palm Oil Mills, Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 24. Issue2, February 2003, Pages 117-124

9)    N.T Ng, K.W Lai, G.A Quadir, K.N Seetharamu, I.Abdul Azid and Z.A Zainal, Optimization of liquid fins in microelectronic packaging, Engineering Optimization, Vol.35, No.4 August 2003, Pages 359-374

10)  Teck Joo Goh, K.N Seetharamu, G.A Quadir, Z.A Zainal and K.Jeevan, Thermal investigation of microelectronic chip with non uniform power distribution: temperature prediction and thermal placement design optimization, Microelectronics International, Vol21 No.3 2004 pages 29-43

11)  Teck Joo.Goh, K.N Seetharamu,G.A Quadir, Z.A . Zainal and K.Jeevan, Prediction of temperature in silicon chip with non-uniform power: a Lagragian interpolation approach, Microelectronic International, Vol.2, No.2 2004, pages 29-35

12)  K.N Seetharamu, G.A Quadir and Z.A Zainal, FEM analysis of multifluid heat exchangers, International Journal of Numerical Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol14, No.2, 2004 Pages 242-255

13)  T. Gynaprakash, Z.AZainal and KNS Seetharamu, Transient Analysis of a Liquid Solar Collector, Renewable Energy, Renewable Energy, Volume 30, Issue 13, Oct 2005, Pages 2045-2056

14)  K. Jeevan, G.A Quadir, K.N Seetharamu, I.A Azid and Z.A Zainal, Optimization of thermal resisitance of stacked micro-channel using genetic algorithm, International Journal of Numerical for Heat and Fluid Flow, Volume 15., No.1, 2005,

15)  Kang Eu Ong, Kor Oon Lee, K.N Seetharamu, I.A Azid, G.A Quadir and Z.A Zainal, Optimization of fins in electronic packaging, Microelectronic International, Vol22, No.2, 2005, pages 10-15

16)  Pradeep Hegde, K.N Seetharamu, G.A Quadir, P.A Aswatha, M.Z Abdullah and Z.A Zainal, Thermal analysis of microchannel heat exchangers with two phase flow using FEM, Microelectronic International, Vol 15, No.1, 2005, pages 43-60

17)  Badrudin IA and Zainal Z.A, Free Convection and radiation for a vertical wall with varying temperature embedded in porous medium, International Journal of Thermal Science, Volume 45, Issue 5, May 2006, Pages 487-493

18)  Badrudin IA and Zainal Z.A, Free Convection and radiation characteristics for vertical plate embedded in porous medium, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering , John Wiley, 2006 65: 2265-2278

19)  Badrudin IA and Z.A.Zainal, Heat Transfer by Radiation and Natural Convection Through a Vertical Annulus Embedded in Porous Medium, International Communication in Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 33, Issue 4, April 2006, Pages 500-507

20)  Badrudin IA and Z.A.Zainal, Heat Transfer in Porous Cavity under the Influence of Radiation and Viscous Dissipation, International Communication in Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 33, Issue 4, April 2006, Pages 491-499

21)  Badrudin IA and Z.A Zainal Thermal non Equilibrium Modelling of Heat Transfer Through Vertical annulus embedded with Porous Medium, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 49 Issue 25-26 December 2006 Pages 4955-4965

22)  Badrudin IA and Zainal ZA, Natural Convection Through an Annulus Vertical Cylindrical Porous Medium, International Journal of Heat Exchangers 1524-5608/Vol VII (2006)

23)  Rifau, A, Zainal, Z.A et al, Performance Study On An Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IT-SOFT) Fabricated By Dry Pressing Method. American Journal of Applied Sciences 3 (9): 2020-2024, 2006

24)  Teck Joo.Goh, Chia-Pin Chiu, K.N Seetharamu, G.A Quadir and Z.A Zainal, Test chip and substrate design for flip chip microelectronic package thermal measurements, Microelectronic International, Vol23, No.2, 2006 pages 3-10

25)  Zainal, Z.A and Soid,SN. Modelling of Combustion Characteristics in diesel engine fuelled by producer gas, SAE Technical Paper Series, 2007-01-2130

26)  Badrudin IA and Zainal ZA, Numerical Analysis of Convection Conduction and Radiation Using a Non-Equilibrium Model on Square Porous Cavity, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Volume 46, issue 1 January 2007 Pages 20-29

27)  Lim Mook Tzeng and Z.A Zainal, Operational Investigation of a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification System, Energy for Sustainable Development, Volume XI No.1 March 2007, Pages 88-93

28)  Ooi Yong Son, Irfan Anjum Badruddin, Z.A Zainal, Airflow Analysis in an Air Conditioning Room, Building and Environment, Volume 42, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 1531-1537

29)  Irfan Badruddin, Z.A Zainal, Effect of Viscous Dissipation and Radiation on Natural Convection in a Porous Medium Embedded within Vertical Annulus, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Volume 46, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 221-227

30)  Muhamad Azman Miskam, Z.A Zainal, M.Y Idroas, Performance and characteristics of a cyclone gasifier for gasification of sawdust, Journal of Applied Science, 2007.

31)  A.B Nasrin, A.N. Ma, Y.M Choo, S. Mohamad, M.H Rohaya, A.Azali and Z.Zainal, Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production, American Journal of Applied Sciences % (3):179-183,2008

32)  Mook Tzeng Lim and Zainal Alimuddin, Bubbling Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification- Performance, Process Findings and Energy Analysis, Renewable Energy 33 (2008) 2339-2343

33)  I Mohamad Yusof, N.A Farid, Z.A Zainal and M Azman, Characterization of Rice Husk for Cyclone Gasifier, Journal of Applied Science 8 (4): 622-628, 2008

34)  N.J. Salman Ahmed, Irfan Anjum Badruddin, Z.A. Zainal, H.M.T. Khaleed, Jeevan Kanesan, Heat Transfer in a Conical Cylinder with Porous Medium, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (2009),

35)  J Salman Ahmed, Z.A Zainal, Heat Transfer Analysis of Porous Medium in a Conical Cylinder With Variable Wall Temperature, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), Vol 3 (2008), No, 145-152

36)  Khor Kwan Hooi, Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin, Lim Koon Ong, Laboratory-Scale Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Pressed Fruit Fibres, Journal of Oil Palm Research, Vol. 21, 577-587(20037)

37)  M. Yusof, N.A. Farid, Z.A. Zainal, G.B. Horizon, K. Noriman, A. Miskam, Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Swirl Burner for Alpha V-Shaped Stirling Engine, Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, ISSN 1996-3343(2009)

38)  KH Khor, KO Lim and ZA Zainal, Characterization of Bio-Oil: A By-Product from Slow Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches, American Journal of Applied Sciences 6(9): 1647-1652, 2009 ISSN 1546-9239 Science Publication

40)  NJ Salman Ahmed, Irfan Anjum Badruddin and Z.A Zainal, Heat Transfer in a Conical Cylinder with Porous Medium, International Journal of Heat ans Mass Transfer 52(2009)3070-3078

41)  K.A. Al-attab, Z.A. Zainal. Turbine startup methods for externally fired micro gas turbine (EFMGT) system using biomass fuels. Applied Energy 2010; 87(4): 1336-1341.

42)  K.A. Al-attab, Z.A. Zainal. Performance of high-temperature heat exchangers in biomass fuel powered externally fired gas turbine systems. Renewable Energy 2010; 35(5): 913-920

43)  S Hassan, ZA Zainal and MA Miskam, A Preliminary Investigation of Compressed Gas from Downdraft Biomass Gasifier, Journal of Applied Sciences, 2010 ISSN 1812-5654

44)  KH Khor, KO Lim and ZA Zainal, Laboratory-Scale Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Trunks, Energy Sources, Part A, 32:518-531, 2010

45)  M Iqbal and Z.A Zainal, Wood Gas from the Suction Gasifier- An Experimental Analysis, Asian Journal of Applied Sciences 3(1):52-59, 2010

46)  Mahadzir M.M, Zainal Z.A. Characteristics of Fluidization Behaviours of 1000micron CaO-Sand Mixture by Varying the Percentage of CaO, Air flow Rate and Pressure. Journal of Applied Sciences 10 (9) 745-751,2010

47)  Alauddin, Z Lahijani, P., Mohammadi, M., Mohamed, A,R., Gasification of Lignocellulosic biomass in Fluidized bed for renewable energy development: A review. Renewable and Sustainable energy Reviews, 14, 2852-2862, 2010.

48)  Al-attab, K.A., Zainal, Z.A.Design and performance of a pressurized cyclone combustor (PCC) for high and low heating value gas combustion (2011) Applied Energy, 88 (4), pp. 1084-1095.

49)  Anis, S., Zainal, Z.A.Tar reduction in biomass producer gas via mechanical, catalytic and thermal methods: A review (2011) Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (5), pp. 2355-2377.

50)  Hassan, S., Zainal, Z.A., Miskam, M.A.Effects of advanced injection timing on performance and emission of a supercharged dual-fuel diesel engine fueled by producer gas from downdraft gasifier (2011) Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 70 (3), pp. 220-224.

51)  Mahadzir, M.M., Zainal, Z.A.Experimental study of hydrodynamic characteristics and CO2 absorption in producer gas using CaO-sand mixture in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor (2011) International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 9, art. no. A9, .

52)  Soid, S.N., Zainal, Z.A.Spray and combustion characterization for internal combustion engines using optical measuring techniques – A review (2011) Energy, 36 (2), pp. 724-741.

53)  Lahijani, P., Zainal, Z.A. Gasification of palm empty fruit bunch in a bubbling fluidized bed: A performance and agglomeration study(2011) Bioresource Technology, 102 (2), pp. 2068-2076.

54)  S. Hassan, Z.A Zainal and S. Aizat. (2011). Effect of supercharging on the performance and exhaust emission of dual fuel engine fueled with producer gas –diesel and palm oil blends. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research. 7 (2), pp 162-169

55)  S. Hassan, F. Mohd Nor, Z.A Zainal (2011). Performance and emission characteristics of supercharged biomass producer gas diesel dual fuel engine. Journal of Applied Sciences. (2011).11(9) 1606-1611

56)  N.J Salman Ahmad, Z.A Zainal. Study of mixed convection in an annulus vertical cylinder filled with saturated porous medium thermal non equilibrium model. International Journal of Het and Mass Transfer, 54 (2011),3822-3825

57)  A.S. Binghooth, Z.A. Zainal. Performance of desiccant dehumidification with hydronic radiant cooling system in hot humid climates Energy and Buildings, Volume 51, August 2012, Pages 1-5

58)  S.N Soid, Z.A Zainal, M.A Iqbal and M.A Miskam. Macroscopic spray charactrristics od palm oil-diesel blends in a constant volume combustion chamber. Journal of Scientific & Industrial research, Vol.71, November 2012, pp.740-747

59)  P. Lahijani, Z.A Zainal and A.R Mohamed. Catalytic effect of iron species on CO2 Gasification reactivity of palm shell char. Thermochimica Acta 546 (2012) 24-31

60)  Devarajan Ramasamy, Khoo Aik Soon, Horizon Walker-Gitano Briggs and Z.A Zainal. Variation of the air flow pattern through dissimilar valve lift in a spark ignition engine.Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers,(2012), iFirst, 1-14

61)  P. Lahijani, Z.A Zainal and M. Mohammadi. Air gasification of oil palm waste over dolomite in a fluidized bed. Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences (2013), page 1-14

62)  P. Lahijani, Z.A Zainal, A.R Mohamed and M. Mohammadi. Ash of palm empty fruit bunch as a natural catalyst for promoting the CO2 gasification reactivity of biomass char. Bioresoruce Technology 132 (2013) 351-355

63)  M. Mohammadi, P. Lahijani, Z.A Zainal and A.R Mohamed. Capture of carbon dioxide from flue /fuel gas using dolomite under microwave irradiation. Chemical Engineering Journal 240 (2014) 169-178

64)  Wega Trisunaryanti, Triyono, Cut Novrita Rizki, Harwin Saptoadi,Zainal Alimuddin, Mochamad Syamsiro and Kunio Yoshikawa. Characteristics of metal supported-zeolite catalyst for hydrocracking of polyethylene terephthalat. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. Volume 3,Issue 4, (2013) pp. 29-34

65)  P. Lahijani, Z.A Zainal, A.R Mohamed and M. Mohammadi.CO2 gasification reactivity of biomass char: catalytic influence of alkali. Alkaline earth and transition metal salts. Bioresource Technology, 144 (2013) 288-295

66)  P. Lahijani, Z.A Zainal, A.R Mohamed and M. Mohammadi. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process. Bioresource Technology, 138 (2013) 124-130

67)  A.M Iqbal, Z.A Zainal, A.M Mustafa Al-Bakri, M Mazlan, S.N Soid and K.M Nasir. Potential of upgrading domestic biomass into a higher energy density via torrefaction process. Advance Materials Research, Vol 795 (2013) pp 620-625

68)  A.M Iqbal, Z.A Zainal, A.M Mustafa Al-Bakri,M.S Abdul Aziz and M Mazlan. Renewable energy from biomass-a potential contribution and energy analysis. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(5): 213-219, 2013

69)  Samsudin Anis, Z.A Zainal and M.Z.A Bakar. Thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compounds via radio frequency. Bioresource Technology, 136 (2013)117-125

70)  Samsudin Anis, Z.A Zainal. Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. Bioresource Technology 150 (2013) 328-337

71)  Iqbal A.M, Zainal Z.A , Mazlan M, Mustafa Al-Bakri A.M and Salim M.S. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine running on blended palm oil. Advance Material Research, Volume 795, 2013 pp 164-169

72)  P. Lahijani, Z.A Zainal, A.R Mohamed and M. Mohammadi. Microwave-enhanced CO2 gasification of oil palm shell char. Bioresource Technology 158 (2014) 193-200

73)  Samsudin Anis, Z.A Zainal.Study on kinetic model of microwave thermocatalytic treatment of biomass tar model compound. Bioresource Technology, 151 (2014) 183-190

74)  K.A Al-Attab and Z.A Zainal. Performance of a biomass fuelled two stage micro gas turbine (MGT) system with hot air production heat recovery unit. Applied Thermal Engineering 70 (2014) 61-70

75)  Maedeh Mohammadi, Pooya Lahijani, Zainal Alimuddin Zainal, Abdul Rahman Mohamed. Capture of carbon dioxide from flue/fuel gas using dolomite under microwave irradiation. Chemical Engineering Journal. 240 (2014) 169-178

76)  Soid S.N and Zainal Z.A, Combustion characteristics and optimization of CPG (compressed producer gas) in a constant volume chamber. Energy.73 (2014) 59-69

77)  Lahijani P and Zainal Z.A , Fluidized bed gasification of palm empty fruit bunch using various bed materials. Energy Sources , Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental effects. 36:2502-2510,2014

78)  Ramasamy,D, Yuan,G.C, Bakar,R.A and Zainal Z.A, Validation of road load characteristic of a sub-compact vehicle by engine operation. International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, 9(1) pp 1820-1831 . 2014

79)  Lahijani P, Zainal Z.A, Mohammadi M, Mohamed AR, Conversion of greenhouse gas CO2 to fuel gas Co via the Boudouard reaction : A Review. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews. 41(2015)615-632

80)  J.P Simanjuntak and Zainal ZA, Experimental study and characterization of a two-compartment cylindrical internally circulating fluidized bed gasifier. Biomass and Bioenergy 77(2015)147-154

81)  Al-Attab KA, Ho JC and Zainal ZA, Experimental investigation of submerged flame in a packed bed porous media burner by low heating value producer gas. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 62 (2015)1-8

82)  Al- Attab KA and Zainal Z.A, Externally fired gas turbine technology: A review. Applied Energy 138 (2015)474-487

83)  Lahijani P, Mohammadi M, Zainal Z.A, , Mohamed AR, Improvement of biomass char-CO2 gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst. Thermochimica Acta 604(2015) 61-66

84)  M. Fadzli Hamid, M. Yusof Idroas, M. Zulfikar Ishak, Z. Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin,M. AzmanMiskam, andM. Khalil Abdullah, An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell BioMed Research International, Volume 2016, Article ID 1679734, 11 pages

85)  Zia UdDin , Z.A.Zainal, Biomass integratedgasification–SOFC systems:Technology overview, RenewableandSustainableEnergyReviews53(2016)1356–1376

86)  D. Ramasamy , Z.A. Zainal , K. Kadirgama , Horizon Walker-Gitano Briggs, Effect of dissimilar valve lift on a bi-fuel CNG engine operation, Energy 112 (2016) 509-519

87)  Nor Azlina Ahmad, Z.A. Zainal*, Performance and chemical composition of waste palm cooking oil as scrubbing medium for tar removal from biomass producer gas, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 32 (2016) 256-261

88)  Aris Warsita , K.A. Al-attab , Z.A. Zainal, Effect of water addition in a microwave assisted thermal cracking of biomass tar models, Applied Thermal Engineering 113 (2017) 722–730

89)  K.A. Al-attab , Z.A. Zainal, Syngas production and combustion characteristics in a biomass fixed bed gasifier with cyclone combustor, Applied Thermal Engineering 113 (2017) 714–72

Research Grants

15 Downscaling effects on combustion mechanism and characterization in micro combustor Project leader FRGS July 2014
16 Paddy drying system Project leader BJIM April 2014
17 Waste to fuel Project Leader KTP Dec 2013
18 Microwave assisted CO2 conversion into fuel carbon reactor using iron and nickel catalyst Project Leader ERGS  July 2014
19 Optimization of combustion for compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel engine Project leader E-Science July 2014
20 Effect of radio frequency power and various catalyst on thermocatalytic cracking of vapour tarry material



E science Dec 2014
21 Torrefaction process for enhancing fuel quality for the low quality biomass Sub project leader LRGS Dec 2014
22 Effect Of Water Injection In A Thermocatalytic Reactor On Tar Removal Efficiency In The Producer Gas

Project leader


RU 30/6/2017
23 Study on hot spot in CO2 gasification using microwave irradiation for Boudouard and water gas reactions

Project leader


FRGS 1/11/2017
24 Effect of Water Injection in Humid Air Turbines (HAT) Standalone Aombined Heat and Power System Fueled by Biomass

Project leader


RU 28/2/2019
25 Performance and Characterization of Access-Enthalpy Based Combustion using Biomas Producer Gas as Fuel

Project leader


AUN SEED 31/3/2018

Available PhD/MSc titles




Externally fired micro gas turbine using a gasifier and high
temperature heat exchanger


Performance of HHO as additives with producer gas in SI engine


Performance of emulsified vegetable oil and water in DI engine
with and without producer gas


Development and performance of low temperature expander
generator (screw motor) using waste heat and low boiling point temp fluid.

5 Performance of direct injection of producer gas into a diesel engine
6 Direct fired micro gas turbine using suction gasifier and cyclone combustor




1 Pelleting of biomass  material for gasification  and combustion
2 Performance of a gasifier combustor for hot air production 
and spray drying
3 Development and performance of a biomass gasifier stove with a
biomass fuelled thermoelectric  generator fan
4 Vapour absorption heat  pump assisted timber drying
system using biomass fuel

Vapour absorption refrigeration and air conditioning using biomass fuel


Cyclone gasifier using pulverized biomass fuel for power generation


Performance of a small scale steam engine using a
monotube steam generator.


Waste plastics pyrolysis at high temp with steam reforming
and catalyst for production of liquid fuel


Combustion characteristics of liquid biofuels, vegetable oil,
waste cooking oil in porous medium combustor.

10 Performance of a 5kW electrical power using a water injection
gasifier via a diesel engine.

Performance of a Bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasifier for
EFB using catalyst as bed material


Heat pump assisted drying.


Evaporative cooling using calcium chloride